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When she is present for him physically and emotionally the infant can both discover his distinction without trauma and explore the object as exciting in itself and as stimulating new possibilities. This is a complex process that continues to resolve itself through creative engagement with life. Volume 6 , Issue 1. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.
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Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Get access to the full version of this article. View access options below. Oftentimes, people may recall having more than one dream in a night. Freud explained that the content of all dreams occurring on the same night represents part of the same whole, he believed.
The first dream is more distorted and the latter is more distinct. Displacement of dream content occurs when manifest content does not resemble the actual meaning of the dream. Displacement comes through the influence of a censorship agent. Representation in dreams is the causal relation between two things.
Freud argues that objects can be combined into a single representation in a dream. It is an analytical study of the human psyche outlining his theories of the psychodynamics of the id, ego and super-ego , of fundamental importance in the development of psychoanalysis; the study was conducted over years of research and was first published in the third week of April The Ego and the Id develops a line of reasoning as a groundwork for explaining various psychological conditions and non-pathological alike; these conditions result from powerful internal tensions—for example: 1 between the ego and the id, 2 between the ego and the super ego, 3 between the love-instinct and the death-instinct.
The book deals with the ego and the effects these tensions have on it; the ego—caught between the id and the super-ego—finds itself engaged in conflict by repressed thoughts in the id and relegated to an inferior position by the super-ego. And at the same time, the interplay between the love instinct and the death instinct can manifest itself at any level of the psyche. The outline below is an exegesis of Freud's arguments, explaining the formation of the aforementioned tensions and their effects.
All concepts in The Ego and the Id are built upon the presupposed existence of conscious and unconscious thoughts. On the first line, Freud states, " there is nothing new to be said He further distinguishes between two types of unconscious thoughts: " preconscious " ideas, which are latent yet capable of becoming conscious, it would be overly simple to assume that the unconscious and the conscious map directly onto the id and the ego, respectively.
Freud argues that the conscious ego can be shown to possess unconscious thoughts when it unknowingly resists parts of itself. Thus, a third kind of unconscious thought seems to be necessary, a process, neither repressed nor latent, but, nonetheless an integral part of the ego: the act of repression. If this is true, Freud argues that the idea of " unconsciousness " must be reevaluated: contrary to prior belief, human psychodynamics cannot be explained by a tension between unconscious and conscious thoughts.
A new framework is required, one. Before defining the ego explicitly, Freud argues for a manner in which unconscious thoughts can be made conscious, he believes the answer lies in the difference between unconscious thoughts and preconscious thoughts: The unconscious are "worked out upon some sort of material that remains unrecognized", while the preconscious are connected to perceptions "verbal images". The difference is a connection to words The goal of psychoanalysis is to connect the floating unconscious material to words via psychoanalytic dialogue, he goes on to note that the ego is a system of perception, so it must be related to the preconscious.
Thus, two primary components of ego are a set of unconscious ideas, its relationship to the unconscious id, therefore, is a close one. The ego merges into the id. He compares the dynamic to that of a horse. The ego must control the id, like the rider, but at times, the rider is obliged to guide the horse where it wants to go; the ego must, at times, conform to the desires of the id. The ego is a "modified portion" of the id that can perceive the empirical world, it is this idea of perception that leads Freud to call the ego a "body-ego" —a mental projection of the surface of one's physical body.
The ego is divided into two parts: the ego-ideal. Although Freud seems never to argue for the existence of a super-ego in The Ego and the Id , we may consider a need for the super-ego implicit in Freud's previous arguments. Indeed, the super-ego is the solution to the mystery raised in the first chapter—the unconscious part of the ego, the part that acts in a repressive capacity, his argument for the formation of the super-ego hinges on the idea of internalization—a processes in which the mind creates an internal version of the same object.
He gives the example of melancholia resulting from the loss of a sexual object. In cases such as these, the melancholic subject constructs a new object within the ego—to mitigate the pain of loss. The ego, in some sense, becomes the object The love of the id is redirected—away from the external world—and turned inward.
Freud arrives at his conclusions about the super-ego by combining the idea of internalization with the idea of the Oedipus complex. In early childhood, prior to the Oedipus complex, an individual forms an important identification with the father; this identification is complicated by the object-cathexis that forms as a result of the mother's breast. The attitude toward the father becomes ambivalent, for the paternal figure is identified with yet perceived as an obstacle; the entire dual-natured complex is taken internally, forming a new part of his ego which has the same moral authority that a parent might have.
This seems si. Id, ego and super-ego The id, super-ego are three distinct, yet interacting agents in the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche. The three parts are the theoretical constructs in terms of whose activity and interaction our mental life is described. According to this Freudian model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends; as Freud explained:The functional importance of the ego is manifested in the fact that control over the approaches to motility devolves upon it. Thus in its relation to the id it is like a man on horseback, who has to hold in check the superior strength of the horse; the analogy may be carried a little further.
A rider, if he is not to be parted from his horse, is obliged to guide it where it wants to go. Although the model is structural and makes reference to an apparatus, the id, ego and super-ego are purely psychological concepts and do not correspond to structures of the brain such as the kind dealt with by neuroscience ; the super-ego is observable in how someone can view themselves as guilty, shameful and feel compelled to do certain things. Freud in The Ego and the Id discusses "the general character of harshness and cruelty exhibited by the ideal — its dictatorial'Thou shalt.
At the time at which the Oedipus complex gives place to the super-ego they are something quite magnificent. Identifications come about with these parents as well, indeed they make important contributions to the formation of character; the earlier in development, the greater the estimate of parental power. When one defuses into rivalry with the parental imago one feels the'dictatorial thou shalt' to manifest the power the imago represents.
Four general levels are found in Freud's work: the auto-erotic, the narcissistic , the anal, the phallic ; these different levels of development and the relations to parental imagos correspond to specific id forms of aggression and affection. For example, aggressive desires to decapitate , to dismember , to cannibalize , to swallow whole, to suck dry, to make disappear, to blow away, etc.
The concepts themselves arose at a late stage in the development of Freud's thought as the "structural model" and was first discussed in his essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle and was formalized and elaborated upon three years in his The Ego and the Id.
Freud's proposal was influenced by the ambiguity of the term "unconscious" and its many conflicting uses; the id is the disorganized part of the personality structure that contains a human's basic, instinctual drives. Id is the only component of personality, present from birth, it is the source of our bodily needs, wants and impulses our sexual and aggressive drives. The id contains the libido , the primary source of instinctual force, unresponsive to the demands of reality. The id acts according to the "pleasure principle"—the psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse—defined as seeking to avoid pain or unpleasure aroused by increases in instinctual tension.
According to Freud the id is unconscious by definition: It is the dark, inaccessible part of our personality, what little we know of it we have learned from our study of the dreamwork and of course the construction of neurotic symptoms, most of, of a negative character and can be described only as a contrast to the ego. We approach the id with analogies: we call it a chaos, a cauldron full of seething excitations It is filled with energy reaching it from the instincts, but it has no organization, produces no collective will, but only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of the instinctual needs subject to the observance of the pleasure principle.
In the id There is nothing in the id that could be compared with negation Developmentally, the id precedes the ego. While "id" is in search of pleasure, "ego" emphasizes the principle of reality. Thus, the id The mind of a newborn child is regarded as "id-ridden", in the sense that it is a mass of instinctive drives and impulses, needs immediate satisfaction; the "id" moves on to. Example is reduction of tension, experienced; the id "knows no judgements of value: no good and e.
Laing Ronald David Laing cited as R. Laing, was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness — in particular, the experience of psychosis. Laing's views on the causes and treatment of psychopathological phenomena were influenced by his study of existential philosophy and ran counter to the chemical and electroshock methods that had become psychiatric orthodoxy.
Taking the expressed feelings of the individual patient or client as valid descriptions of lived experience rather than as symptoms of mental illness, Laing regarded schizophrenia as a theory not a fact. Though associated in the public mind with anti-psychiatry he rejected the label.
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Politically, he was regarded as a thinker of the New Left. Laing was portrayed in the film Mad to Be Normal. Laing described his parents — his mother — as being somewhat anti-social, demanding the maximum achievement from him. Although his biographer son discounted Laing's account of his childhood, an obituary by an acquaintance of Laing asserted that about his parents — "the full truth he told only to a few close friends". Described variously as clever, competitive or precocious, he studied Classics philosophy, including through reading books from the local library.
Small and built, Laing participated in distance running, he studied medicine at the University of Glasgow. During his medical degree he set up a " Socratic Club ", of which the philosopher Bertrand Russell agreed to be President. Laing failed his final exams. In a partial autobiography, Wisdom and Folly, Laing said he felt remarks he made under the influence of alcohol at a university function had offended the staff and led to him being failed on every subject including some he was sure he had passed.
After spending six months working on a psychiatric unit, Laing passed the re-sits in to qualify as a medical doctor. Laing spent a couple of years as a psychiatrist in the British Army Psychiatric Unit at Netley , where as he recalled, those trying to fake schizophrenia to get a lifelong disability pension were to get more than they had bargained for as Insulin shock therapy was being used.
In Laing returned to Glasgow, participated in an existentialism-oriented discussion group, worked at the Glasgow Royal Mental Hospital The hospital was influenced by David Henderson's school of thought, which may have exerted an unacknowledged influence on Laing. Laing's colleagues characterised him as " conservative " for his opposition to Electroconvulsive therapy and the new drugs that were being introduced. In Laing went to train on a grant at the Tavistock Institute in London known as a centre for the study and practice of psychotherapy.
At this time, he was associated with D. Winnicott and Charles Rycroft , he remained at the Tavistock Institute until In Laing and a group of colleagues created the Philadelphia Association and started a psychiatric community project at Kingsley Hall , where patients and therapists lived together.
Jensen was treated by Laing and subsequently they became close friends.
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Laing visited Jensen onboard his ship Shanti Devi , his home in Stockholm. Though Laing found Janov modest and unassuming, he thought of him as a'jig man'. Laing sympathized with Janov, but regarded his primal therapy as a lucrative business, one which required no more than obtaining a suitable space and letting people'hang it all out. Many former colleagues regarded him as a brilliant mind gone wrong but there were some who thought Laing was somewhat psychotic.
Laing was seen as an important figure in the anti-psychiatry movement, along with David Cooper , although he never denied the value of treating mental distress. He challenged psychiatric diagnosis itself, arguing that diagnosis of a mental disorder contradicted accepted medical procedure: diagnosis was made on the basis of behaviour or conduct, examination and ancillary tests that traditionally precede the diagnosis of viable pathologies occurred after the diagnosis of mental disorder. Hence, according to Laing, psychiatry was founded on a false epistemology : illness diagnosed by conduct, but treated biologically.
Laing maintained that schizophrenia was "a theory not a fact", he rejected the "medical model of mental illness".
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His attitude to recreational drugs was quite different. She was born in the sixth and youngest child of Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays , she contributed to the field of psychoanalysis. Alongside Melanie Klein , she may be considered the founder of psychoanalytic child psychology. Compared to her father, her work emphasized the importance of the ego and its normal "developmental lines" as well as incorporating a distinctive emphasis on collaborative work across a range of analytical and observational contexts. After the Freud family were forced to leave Vienna in , with the advent of the Nazi regime in Austria , she resumed her psychoanalytic practice and her pioneering work in child psychology in London , establishing the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic in as a centre for therapy and research work.
She grew up in "comfortable bourgeois circumstances. She had difficulties getting along with her siblings with her sister Sophie Freud. Sophie, the more attractive child, represented a threat in the struggle for the affection of their father: "the two young Freuds developed their version of a common sisterly division of territories:'beauty' and'brains', their father once spoke of her'age-old jealousy of Sophie. It seems that'in general, she was relentlessly competitive with her siblings The close relationship between Anna and her father was different from the rest of her family, she was a lively child with a reputation for mischief.
Freud wrote to his friend Wilhelm Fliess in "Anna has become downright beautiful through naughtiness. On Anna Freud would say that she didn't learn much in school; this was how she picked up Hebrew , English and Italian. At the age of 15, she started reading her father's work and discovered a dream she had'at the age of nineteen months Commentators have noted how'in the dream of little Anna Anna finished her education at the Cottage Lyceum in Vienna in Suffering from a depression and anorexia , she was insecure about what to do in the future.
A visit to Britain in the autumn of , which her father's colleague, Ernest Jones , became of concern to Freud when he learned of the latter's romantic intentions, his advice to Jones, in a letter of 22 July , was that his daughter " There is an outspoken understanding between me and her that she should not consider marriage or the preliminaries before she gets two or three years older".
In she passed the test to work as a teaching apprentice at the Cottage Lyceum. From to , she worked as a teaching apprentice for third and fifth graders. For the school year , she began'her first venture as Klassenlehrerin for the second grade'.
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For her performance during the school years she was praised by her superior, Salka Goldman who'wrote After experiencing multiple episodes of illness Anna Freud resigned her teaching post in ; this enabled her to pursue further her growing interest in her father's work and writings. From to and from to she was in analysis with her father.
In she presented her paper "Beating Fantasies and Daydreams" to the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society and became a member of the society. In , she began her own psychoanalytical practice with children and by she was teaching at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Training Institute on the technique of child analysis. From until , she was the Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association while she continued child analysis and contributed to seminars and conferences on the subject.
In , she became director of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Training Institute and the following year she published her influential study of the "ways and means by which the ego wards off depression and anxiety ", The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence, it became a founding work of ego psychology and established Freud's reputation as a pioneering theoretician. Among the first children Anna Freud took into analysis. In Burlingham, heiress to the Tiffany luxury jewellery retailer, had arrived in Vienna from New York with her four children and entered analysis firstly with Theodore Reik and with a view to training in child analysis, with Freud himself.
Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. Jung's work was influential in the fields of psychiatry , archaeology, literature and religious studies. Jung worked as a research scientist under Eugen Bleuler. During this time, he came to the attention of the founder of psychoanalysis; the two men conducted a lengthy correspondence and collaborated, for a while, on a joint vision of human psychology.
Freud saw the younger Jung as the heir he had been seeking to take forward his "new science" of psychoanalysis and to this end secured his appointment as President of his newly founded International Psychoanalytical Association. Jung's research and personal vision, made it impossible for him to bend to his older colleague's doctrine, a schism became inevitable; this division was painful for Jung, it was to have historic repercussions lasting well into the modern day. Among the central concepts of analytical psychology is individuation—the lifelong psychological process of differentiation of the self out of each individual's conscious and unconscious elements.
Jung considered it to be the main task of human development. He created some of the best known psychological concepts, including synchronicity , archetypal phenomena, the collective unconscious, the psychological complex , extraversion and introversion. Jung was an artist and builder as well as a prolific writer. Many of his works were not published until after his death and some are still awaiting publication. Carl Gustav Jung was born in Kesswil , in the Swiss canton of Thurgau , on 26 July as the second and first surviving son of Paul Achilles Jung and Emilie Preiswerk, their first child, born in , was a boy named Paul.
Being the youngest son of a noted Basel physician of German descent called Karl Gustav Jung, whose hopes of achieving a fortune never materialised, Paul Jung did not progress beyond the status of an impoverished rural pastor in the Swiss Reformed Church. Emilie was the youngest child of a distinguished Basel churchman and academic, Samuel Preiswerk, his second wife. Preiswerk was antistes , the title given to the head of the Reformed clergy in the city, as well as a Hebraist and editor, who taught Paul Jung as his professor of Hebrew at Basel University.
When Jung was six months old, his father was appointed to a more prosperous parish in Laufen , but the tension between his parents was growing. Emilie Jung was an depressed woman. Although she was normal during the day, Jung recalled that at night his mother became strange and mysterious, he reported that one night he saw a faintly luminous and indefinite figure coming from her room with a head detached from the neck and floating in the air in front of the body.
Jung had a better relationship with his father. Jung's mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for an unknown physical ailment, his father took the boy to be cared for by Emilie Jung's unmarried sister in Basel, but he was brought back to his father's residence. Emilie Jung's continuing bouts of absence and depression troubled her son and caused him to associate women with "innate unreliability", whereas "father" meant for him reliability but powerlessness. In his memoir, Jung would remark; these early impressions were revised: I have trusted men friends and been disappointed by them, I have mistrusted women and was not disappointed.
After three years of living in Laufen, Paul Jung requested a transfer. When he was nine years old, Jung's sister Johanna Gertrud was born. Known in the family as "Trudi", she became a secretary to her brother. Jung was a introverted child.
From childhood, he believed that, like his mother, he had two personalities—a modern Swiss citizen and a personality more suited to the 18th century. Although Jung was close to both parents, he was disappointed by his father's academic approach to faith. A number of childhood memories made lifelong impressions on him; as a boy, he carved a tiny mannequin into the end of the wooden ruler from his pencil case and placed it inside the case. He added a stone, which he had painted into upper and lower halves, hid the case in the attic.
Periodically, he would return to the mannequin bringing tiny sheets of paper with messages inscribed on them in his own secret language. He reflected that this ceremonial act brought him a feeling of inner peace and security. Years he discovered similarities between his personal experience and the practices associated with totems in indigenous cultures, such as the collection of soul-stones near Arlesheim or the tjurungas of Australia , he concluded that his intuitive ceremonial act was an unconscious ritual, which he had practiced in a way, strikingly similar to those in distant locations which he, as a young boy, knew nothing about.
His observations about symbols and the collective unconscious were inspired, in part, by these early experi. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series of articles on Psychoanalysis Concepts. Important figures.