Guide Beyond the Biophysical: Knowledge, Culture, and Power in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management

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Figure 2 is a simplified model of the major forces that have led to deforestation in the Philippines. Although some deforestation has been caused by other factors, for example, the use of trees to make charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forests to fish ponds, the two most important activities leading to deforestation were logging legal and illegal and the expansion of agriculture.

Both of these factors must be considered together, along with rural poverty and the open-access nature of forests Gillis, The deforestation process in the Philippines since World War II can be characterized by two major activities: the conversion of primary to secondary forests by logging activities and the removal of secondary forest cover by the expansion of agriculture. In most cases, roads provide access to the forest for both types of activities. Logging does not necessarily result in deforestation; rather, selective logging, properly practiced, converts a primary forest into a de-.

Clear-cutting is known to have been practiced in certain areas, but this has been relatively rare in Southeast Asia Gillis, , and data on the relative extent of clear-cutting versus selective logging in the Philippines do not exist. Selective logging results in some deforestation, given the extensive road networks and collection and loading areas needed for capital-intensive logging and the extensive damage to forests reported to occur as a result of some logging operations Blanche, ; Burgess, , ; Egerton, ; Gillis, ; Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development, ; World Bank, a.

The relationship between logging and the conditions of primary and secondary forests is a dynamic one. As logging converts primary forests to secondary forests, loggers move on to new primary forests. Implicit in this scheme is the notion that secondary forests do not return to a state suitable for a second harvest, although several concessionaires in the Philippines are known to have returned for a second cut. Concessionaires have not, in general, engaged in protection of secondary forests, enrichment planting, or reforestation Food and Agriculture Organization and United Nations Environment Program, Overall, it appears that there has been minimal protection of forests in the Philippines.

Expansion of agriculture takes place primarily in secondary forests. Logged forests are more likely than primary forests to be penetrated by roads, and roads greatly facilitated the expansion of agriculture Asian Development Bank, ; Edgerton, ; Food and. The annual decline in forest area km 2 was determined as the difference in forest area between and using the respective estimated data sources for each year referenced in columns 1 and 2.

Source: Kummer, D. Deforestation in the Postwar Philippines. Chicago, Ill. Also, it is much easier for poor farmers to clear secondary forests than it is for them to clear primary forests Byron and Waugh, In an economic sense, logging lowers the costs of clearing the land by settlers Southgate and Pearce, The majority of logged-over forestlands have been converted to grasslands or are used for agriculture Hicks and McNicoll, Natural forest regeneration is prevented by a range of prevailing factors: fire in uncultivated logged-over areas and ranch areas, grass succession and loss of tree seed in shifting cultivated areas, and permanent conversion to agricultural fields in intensively farmed areas.

The relationships among the expansion of agriculture, the creation of secondary forests, and deforestation are also dynamic. Preceding logging and the expansion of agriculture is the construction of roads Hackenberg and Hackenberg, These roads are primarily the result of development considerations by provincial or national government or are built by loggers who have concessions.

The roads.

They facilitate the spread of agriculture by opening up new areas; this occurred in parts of Mindanao in the s and early s Vandermeer and Agaloos, ; Wernstedt and Simkins, In addition, logging provides jobs and, thus, directly leads to population increases. The relationship between new roads and deforestation has been clearly made by Thung for Thailand and by Fearnside for Brazil. The expansion of agricultural activities onto forested lands is driven by two forces: increases in population and widespread poverty.

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In addition, the expansion of agriculture in some areas is promoted by wealthier people who open up forestlands for perennial crop production or cattle grazing or simply to establish a land claim. This is often accomplished through support for poor farmers who are subsidized to clear the land. The overriding goal of the low-income households in upland regions is to produce or earn enough to eat.

Food income provides basic security U. Agency for International Development, Poor people are forced to engage in subsistence agriculture because it is often the only option available Gwyer, Segura-de los Angeles , in a case study of an upland agroforestry project in Luzon, noted that 88 percent of all those surveyed consumed all of the rice they produced and did not have a marketable surplus. Although upland farmers in Davao grew some commercial crops, their primary crops were rice and maize Hackenberg and Hackenberg, The granting of timber concessions occurred for two reasons: the legitimate desire of the Philippine government to foster development and the granting of political favors to either Philippine elites or multinational corporations primarily U.

Postwar Philippine governments do not appear to have been concerned with development in the forest sector; rather, it appears that forests are viewed as an asset whose benefits should flow mainly to politicians and well-connected individuals Ofreno, ; Palmier, In fact, it is difficult to distinguish between politicians and loggers, since loggers contribute heavily to political campaigns and many politicians control logging concessions The Economist, It is now generally accepted that commercial forest resources were vastly underpriced throughout the postwar pe-.

Deforestation in 67 provinces was analyzed statistically from to Kummer, The study used data on the annual allowable cut, which was greater than legally reported logging and may more accurately reflect the actual volume of timber harvested, considering the additional timber that is extracted illegally. Deforestation from to was positively related to the annual allowable cut in and to the absolute change in the area devoted to agricultural activities Kummer, The distance from Manila was not significantly related to the deforestation rate, but in those areas of the Philippines where logging was banned during the reign of Ferdinand E.

Marcos — , the logged area determined from the rates of deforestation were actually higher than the rates where logging was allowed Schade, Postwar discussions of deforestation in the Philippines have tended to blame either loggers or migrant farmers in frontier areas engaged in nontraditional shifting cultivation for the decline in forest cover.

These two agents cannot be considered separately; rather, they are linked. The plan articulates a people-oriented forestry program that is sensitive to the current understanding of the complex underlying determinants of deforestation. The policy prescriptions and implementation devices presented in the plan are analyzed later in this chapter.

This section evaluates current and potential directions for formulating concrete solutions to deforestation and sustainable land use. It examines the determinants of sustainable agricultural systems and forest systems within each of the three major land use subecosystems in Philippine uplands. The approach emphasizes the interrelatedness of social and technical issues and the importance of an integrated social-technical approach to forest and agricultural development.

A large and rapidly expanding portion of the upland landscape is being converted to areas that are permanently farmed.

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These farms. They are predominantly cultivated with subsistence food crops, particularly maize and upland rice, but they are partly used for perennial crop plantations, especially coconut plantations. At increasing elevations and more remote locations that are difficult to access, the land predominantly contains grasslands and brushlands. The remaining forested areas are generally the secondary forest remnants of previous logging activities or localized unlogged areas, which are found at the highest elevations and on the steepest slopes.

These three broad land use types permanently farmed sloping lands, grasslands, and forested lands tend to form distinct entities that flow into each other. The permanently cultivated lands expand into the grasslands as shifting cultivation on the grassland margins intensifies, and the grasslands advance at the expense of the forested lands as settlement and the relentless use of fire open and transform the forests. The human and natural ecology of each of these three entities is distinct, and technology and policy instruments must be adapted to the realities of each one.

The major issue in permanently farmed sloping lands is how to sustain and increase farm productivity to improve the welfare of the farm population and thereby reduce the rate of migration into the remaining forested lands. Increase in and sustainability of farm productivity may be achievable through policy reform and technological changes in agricultural activities, but the development of more successful farming systems in sloping settled lands will not eliminate the migratory pressure on forested lands.

Technical change could make forested lands more valuable for agriculture, thus encouraging further migration. It is also evident, however, that if the current upland populations cannot become more successful in sustaining their incomes and increasing their employment opportunities, more farmers and their families will be forced to migrate from unproductive farms that can no longer support them, resulting in more rapid and destructive misuse of forestlands.

This suggests that sustainable upland agricultural production systems are necessary to alleviate many problems of human welfare in the uplands and lowlands and ensure more effective forest conservation, but such changes are not sufficient to solve the problem of the conversion of forests to agricultural uses. The essential elements of a strategy for upland development are the same as those that would. They include the need for a positive incentive framework and the availability of appropriate technical solutions.

Agricultural technology can provide a crucial, supporting role in solving the forest conversion problem. Progressive policies in forestry, agriculture, land tenure, and general economic development will impinge greatly on the effectiveness and appropriateness of potential technologies. There are many factors that limit the stability, productivity, and sustainability of upland farms, including climatic variations, biologic stresses, and social and economic uncertainties. A fundamental factor is the nature and rapidity of soil degradation. The sloping upland soils in the Philippines fall into three contrasting types: acidic, infertile soils; young, relatively fertile volcanic soils; and calcareous soils.

The strongly acidic, infertile soils, which are low in available phosphorus, are predominant. The young, more fertile volcanic soils cover large areas in the southern Tagalog and Bicol regions, on Negros Island, and in some areas of Mindanao. These have been the most successfully developed upland agricultural areas. Calcareous upland soils are found on the central Visayan islands of Cebu and Bohol. Restrictions on the available phosphorus also tend to be pronounced in calcareous soils. In addition to the three basic classes of soils, the immense and localized variations in rainfall patterns because of the diverse topography of the Philippines, and the frequency and severity of damage from catastrophic typhoons affect the sustainable management of upland agricultural systems.

Farming systems must be adapted to take into account these various conditions. Philippine upland farmers face a diversity of land types and high levels of risk, yet they have limited access to credit and marketing resources. Under these conditions, agricultural technologists must be able to offer practical, low-cost farming practices that are viable under a wide array of conditions or that are more specifically tailored to a few conditions but that produce results quickly.

Research on upland agroforestry in the Philippines is limited. Agriculturalists and foresters have few technical tools to cope with the enormous variety of circumstances that require attention. Gibbs et al. Leucaena Hedgerows Leucaena Leucaena leucocephala is common in rural areas with less acidic soils. It was indigenously grown in fencerows as a fodder source for cattle.

The National Research Council indicated that the tree showed promise as a hedgerow intercrop that could supply large quantities of nitrogen and organic matter to a companion food crop. Those observations stimulated applied research on hedgerow intercropping in several locations around the Philippines. Guevara reported that hedgerow intercropping produced crop yield increases of 23 percent. Vergara cited experiments in which yields increased by about percent, with no advantage of inorganic nitrogen application beyond the nitrogen supplied by green leaf manure.

Alferez observed a 56 percent yield increase when upland rice was grown in alleys between hedgerows of Leucaena. Hedgerows of Leucaena provided a barrier to soil movement on sloping lands. Data from studies on a steeply sloping site in Mindanao indicated a dramatic reduction in both runoff and soil loss O'Sullivan, In that study, O 'Sullivan also observed a consistent yield advantage over a 4-year period with maize fertilized by the Leucaena prunings obtained from adjacent hedgerows.

By the early s, hedgerow intercropping was advocated by the Department of Agriculture as a technology that was better able to sustain permanent cereal cropping with minimal or no fertilizer inputs and as a soil erosion control measure for sloping lands. SALT recommended that every third alleyway between the double hedgerows of L. This concept offered the possibility of more diversified sources of farm income and improved soil erosion control. By the mids, SALT was adopted by the Philippine Department of Agriculture as the basis for its extension effort in the sloping uplands.

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources also used it as the technical basis for its social forestry pilot projects. A training effort for extension personnel was launched, and demonstration plots of SALT were installed on farmers' fields throughout the country. Several publications have been developed to spread. Some adoption of Leucaena hedgerows occurred in high-intensity extension projects, but there was little evidence of widespread farmer interest in the SALT system.

The lack of secure land tenure was implicated as a constraint to the implementation of this or any long-term land improvement system among tenant farmers or occupants of public lands. Among farmers with secure land tenure, however, the large initial investment of labor, the difficulty in obtaining planting materials, and the technical training and information required for sustained implementation were serious constraints to initiating SALT systems.

In addition, the labor needed to manage the hedges, particularly to prune them 3 to 10 times each year, depending on the management system, was found to absorb a large proportion of the household's available labor. This labor investment tended to compete with other income-generating tasks and may have limited the area that could feasibly be farmed in this manner S.

Hedgerows of Other Species The extension effort on Leucaena hedgerows suffered a major setback in when the exotic psyllid leafhopper Heteropsylla cubana invaded the Philippines, attacking hedgerows and killing or stunting trees throughout the country. This forced a search for replacement hedgerow tree species.

Gliricidia sepium has been the most common replacement, but it must be propagated from cuttings in most areas, increasing the labor investment to establish hedgerows. Other species that have shown promise in hedgerow trials include Flemingia congesta, Acacia vellosa, Leucaena diversifolia, and Cassia spectabilis Mercado et al. Alnus japonica is used in the acid soil highlands in northern Luzon Barker, Pava et al. Over the 2-year interval of monitoring, maize yields increased by both methods, but the greatest increase was among the control group of nonadopters.

Fertilizer use among both groups was very similar.


When queried about the perceived value of the hedgerows, the farmers who adopted leguminous hedgerows emphasized that their investment in hedgerows was long-term insurance that their children could continue to farm the land. The World Neighbors approach was oriented toward the development of a high degree of direct participation by farmers in devising and implementing local solutions to the perceived dominant constraints to crop cultivation on steeply sloping lands.

A system of contour bunding was developed. The bunds provided a base for the establishment of double-contour hedgerows of leguminous trees or forage grasses and a barrier to surface runoff, which is carried off the field in contour ditches. Although these soils are generally deep, soil loss is a problem because it exposes a very acidic subsoil with toxic levels of aluminum. After 3 years of hedgerow intercropping, there was a striking natural development of terraces Figure 3.

Modest yield benefits were ob-. FIGURE 3 Terrace formation and crop growth in a contour hedgerow system of upland rice and leguminous trees on strongly acidic Oxisol soils. Source: Basri, I, A. Mercado, and D. Upland rice cultivation using leguminous tree hedgerows on strongly acid soils. FIGURE 4 Yield on a row-by-row basis of upland rice grown in alleys between hedges of a leguminous tree, Cassia spectabilis, that supplied green.

P, phosphorus; N, nitrogen. Source: Basri, I.

Beyond the Biophysical

Yields of maize and rice were consistently increased when they were intercropped with hedgerows of Gliricidia sepium Mercado et al. However, crop yields were seriously reduced in the rows adjoining the hedges, with or without the application of external nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers Figure 4. The primary roots of both tree species spread laterally into the alleyways at shallow depths 20 to 35 cm immediately beneath the plow layer.

Feeder roots were situated to explore and compete for nutrients and water in the crop root zone. Sustainability in Alley Cropping Systems The sustainability of crop yields in alley cropping systems is a major concern on all soil types. The work reviewed by Szott et al. The high level of exchangeable aluminum in the subsoil inhibits the.

Phosphorus and other mineral elements are often more limiting than nitrogen in these soils. The acidity of the subsoil appears to promote intense competition among roots for mineral nutrients in the surface soil of the alleys and prevents nutrient pumping from the deeper soil layers. The organic matter inputs from hedgerow prunings of Gliricidia and Cassia spectabilis do not supply adequate quantities of phosphorus to meet the nutrient requirements of cereal crops Basri et al. Furthermore, the prunings are composed of phosphorus that the tree may have captured predominantly from the crop root zone.

Grass Strips Grass strips have also received major attention as contour vegetative barriers for erosion control in different parts of the world Lal, Considerable work has been done in the Philippines with napier grass Pennisetum purpureum , guinea grass Panicum maximum , and other grasses Fujisaka and Garrity, ; Granert and Sabueto, The predominant attention has been given to the more vigorous forage grasses, since they tend to provide high levels of biomass for ruminant fodder.

Therefore, they are presumed to serve as a beneficial way to use the area of the field occupied by hedgerows, which is lost to food crop production. Experimental data Table 9 and field observations of plantings in various locations indicate that use of forage grasses for intercropping has the potential to markedly reduce erosion and rapidly develop natural terraces on slopes. Therefore, the establishment of forage grasses has been extended as an alternative to the use of leguminous tree species on contour bunds. Two major problems have surfaced from the use of grass strips. Farmers have difficulty keeping the tall, rapidly growing tropical forage species trimmed to prevent them from shading adjoining field crops.

The biomass productivity of grass hedgerows exceeds the fodder requirements of most small-scale farm enterprises, and it is a burden for farmers to cut the unnecessary foliage frequently. High levels of biomass production also tend to exacerbate competition for nutrients and water with the adjoining food crops and reduce cereal crop yields D. Garrity and A. Mercado, International Rice Research Institute, unpublished data. Intercropping with Noncompetitive Species The constraints observed from intercropping with both trees and forage grasses have stimu-. An inert species is one that has a short stature and a low growth rate, which minimizes hedgerow-crop competition but provides an effective ground cover for filtering out soil particles.

This concept places primary emphasis on the rapid and effective development of terraces to improve field hydrology and maximize soil and nutrient retention. Vetiver zizanioides may exemplify an inert hedgerow species Smyle et al. Vetiver is found throughout the Philippines.

It tends to form a dense barrier and does not self-propagate to become a weed in cultivated fields. However, it must be propagated by vegetative tillers, which is a laborious process. Natural Vegetative Filter Strips An alternative approach that has received little attention is the installation of natural vegetative filter strips. These are narrow contour strips that are left unplowed and on which vegetation is allowed to grow naturally. They may be established at the time that a piece of fallow land is brought into cultivation or during the interval between crops in a continuous cropping system.

The dominant species in natural vegetative filter strips are native weedy grasses: Imperata cylindrica, Paspalum conjugatum, Chrysopogon aciculatus, or others, depending on the location and the management regime to which the strips are subjected. These natural grasses can be suppressed by allowing cattle to graze them, cutting them down, or mulching them with crop residues.

Natural vegetative filter strips are capable of reducing soil loss at least as effectively as commonly recommended introduced species Table 9 , Paspalum conjugatum treatment. They are generally less competitive with food. There have been some isolated observations of the indigenous development of natural vegetative barriers by upland farmers in the Philippines Balina et al. However, research has not been targeted to exploit this option in Philippine uplands.

In the United States there has been extensive research on the use of natural vegetative filter strips for sediment and chemical pollution control [Williams and Lavey, ]. Farm-level adoption of natural vegetative filter strips has been observed to be comparatively simple. Contour lines are laid out at the desired spacing. The field is plowed on the contour, allowing the designated strips to be left as fallow vegetation. In fields where the technique has been implemented, the soil in runoff water is deposited at the filter strip.

This deposition, combined with the movement of soil down the slope during tillage operations, results in the rapid development of terraces of 30 to 70 cm deep within 2 years. The leveling effect of terrace formation evidently improves water retention in the field, and the loss of either applied or native soil nutrients is reduced. These effects need to be investigated under a range of field conditions.

The natural vegetative filter strip approach can be considered the initial stage in a long-term process of contour hedgerow development on farms. As terraces form, farmers may diversify the terrace risers for use in other enterprises by planting trees or perennial crops as they fit their management objectives.

The natural vegetative filter strip concept may be a practical basis for the rapid, wide-scale dissemination of hedgerow technology. Therefore, a substantial effort in both strategic and farmer-participatory research on natural vegetative filter strips is warranted. Cash Crop Production in Hedgerows may also be suitable for the production of perennial cash crops. Some perennial crops that have been used in these systems include coffee, papaya, citrus, and mulberry.

The suitability of the perennial species is limited by the degree of shading of the associated food crops. The cash income that can be made is a major advantage of using perennial crops. Erosion control may not be provided by the perennial crop, but it may be provided by grass that occupies the area between the widely spaced plants.

Cattle Production Backyard production of cattle has become an important enterprise in some densely settled upland areas, particularly Batangas province. A trend toward more intensive small-scale beef and goat production is now under way in many parts of the country. This trend is stimulated by historically high meat prices. Leguminous tree species, particularly Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium, are widely used as high-protein forages, especially in the dry season.

Backyard ruminant production will stimulate more intensive husbandry of manure. An important model of the development of leguminous trees in hedgerows is the use of prunings as a source of animal feed, either for on-farm use or off-farm sales Kang et al. Harvesting of fodder potentially increases the value of the hedgerow prunings, but it also depletes soil nutrient reserves more rapidly because the nutrients contained in the prunings are removed from the field before they can provide their nutrients to the crop.

Unless this manure is spread back on the land or replaced, and nutrient supplements provided in the form of fertilizer, the rate of soil depletion may be accelerated. Currently, the use of green leaf manure is insignificant in upland cropping systems. The experience of the past 15 years with alley cropping and the use of contour hedgerows suggests that appropriate solutions must be tailored to the diverse soil and environmental conditions, farm sizes and labor availabilities, markets, and farmer objectives.

The tendency for a package approach to be applied by extension systems must be replaced with a model that recognizes a wide range of possible hedgerow species and management systems Garrity, There has been little attempt to clarify the appropriate hedgerow technologies for the range of specific local physical and institutional settings. Clean cultivation is the universal soil management practice of Filipino upland farmers whether they use animal power or hand tillage on steep slopes. Crop residues are plowed under, burned, or removed and used as fodder. Retention of surface residues through conservation tillage systems is unexploited, although the value of such practices in reducing soil erosion is profound on tropical sloping uplands Lal, Many studies have shown significant benefits from maintaining a surface mulch.

Thapa found that soil loss was reduced by 90 percent by the presence of a vegetative barrier, but the maintenance of crop residues on the soil surface reduced soil loss by more than 98 percent. It has been shown R. Raros, Visayas State College of Agriculture, Baybay, Leyte, Philippines, personal communication, that upland rice can be dependably established in thick residues without tillage in a hedgerow system, and the yields of a system with three continuous crops per year can be sustained.

Broad-spectrum herbicides such as glyphosate are beginning to be used on a limited basis by small-scale farmers, but the intense weed pressures on upland farms and the tendency for weed species to shift rapidly to resistance to herbicides has severely constrained the development of herbicide-based solutions.

The possibility of successfully using a reduced-tillage system has been reinforced by recent observations on a farmer-evolved system of maize production in Mindanao D. Garrity, International Rice Research Institute, unpublished data. The system involves a crop sequence of three crops of maize monoculture per year but only one primary tillage operation annually.

Interrow cultivation and late weeding during the maize grain-filling period enable the second and third crops to be planted on the day of harvest without tillage and with low weed pressures. This unconventional approach provides interesting prospects for practical techniques for reducing the tillage needed for food crop farming with limited resources. External fertilizer use on food crops by upland farmers is seldom important.

This is due to their severe capital constraints, transport difficulties, and low returns from fertilizer use. Therefore, a long-term decline in yields is typically observed Fujisaka and Garrity, It is widely believed that the sustainability of food crop production could be enhanced by improved retention of crop residues and by the adoption of more diverse crop rotations that include nitrogen-fixing legumes Mclntosh et al.

Beyond the Biophysical

The limited work done to date has shown that there are mixed benefits from these practices. The practical constraints to the implementation of improved nutrient cycling practices are often considerable. Leguminous grains play an insignificant role in upland cropping systems. Mung beans Phaseolus aureus and soybeans Glycine max are adapted to neutral and slightly acidic soils, whereas cowpeas Vigna sinensis, also known as black-eyed peas are more suited to highly acidic soils Torres et al.

When leguminous grains are inserted into cereal crop-based rotations immediately before upland rice or maize is planted, the legume improves the nutrient balance of the next cereal crop Magbanua et al. Intercropping of cereals and legumes may increase their combined productivities, but it does not increase the net availability of nitrogen to the cereal crop Aggarwal et al.

This appears to be due to the low biomass production by tropical leguminous grains that mature early and to nitrogen losses during the long fallow period between the time that the legume is harvested and the establishment of the following wet season crop. Forage legumes have greater longevity in the field than do leguminous grains, and they produce large amounts of nitrogen-rich biomass. On high base-status soils, viny legumes such as lablab Lablab purpureus or siratro Macroptilium atropurpureum can be intercropped with upland rice or maize. They also provide high-quality forage during the dry season.

Lablab also provides a nutritious and marketable food legume for humans Torres and Garrity, On strongly acidic soils, most of the forage legumes have slow establishment rates, are not resilient to pruning, and do not accumulate substantial amounts of biomass during the dry season. This may be attributed to poor rooting and nodulation in the presence of high levels of exchangeable aluminum and low amounts of available phosphorus in the soil.

Their inclusion within annual crop sequences therefore often appears to be impractical without the application of lime or phosphorus or both. The acidic upland soils of the Philippines are predominantly fine-textured, with organic carbon contents of 2 to 3 percent and with a moderate level of total nitrogen. Phosphorus deficiency is frequently the most limiting nutritional problem International Rice Research Institute, and often must be overcome before any response to nitrogen is observed Basri et al.

Phosphorus pumping from the deeper soil layers is limited by subsoils with toxic levels of aluminum and low phosphorus reserves. Since constant nutrient removal or offtake is occurring, crop yield sustainability and significant biologic nitrogen fixation will depend on the importation of mineral nutrients, particularly phosphorus and lime. Greater appreciation of the importance of importing these nutrients in upland agroecosystems with acidic soils is needed. Deposits of phosphate rock in the Philippines are an efficient source of both phosphorus and calcium Atienza, ; Briones and.

Vicente, The exploitation of phosphate rocks for farm use has been neglected and could be expedited. This would require greater government and commercial recognition of the fundamental importance of these minerals to permanent upland agricultural system. Coconuts are the dominant plantation crop in the Philippines, which has the world's largest area devoted to this crop, covering nearly one-sixth of the land surface 4. In addition, there are about , ha of plantations of rubber and other estate trees. Coconut trees occupy much of the steepest nonarable land at lower elevations. Although the canopy of a coconut plantation is relatively open, the land on which coconut is grown provides satisfactory soil protection against erosion when an appropriate grassy or leguminous ground cover is established.


Much of the land on which coconut is grown is owned by wealthier families but is managed in smallholdings by tenants or caretakers. The livelihoods of millions of the poorest families and the economic future of many parts of the uplands are heavily dependent on the health of the coconut industry. A long-term decline in the world market demand for coconut oil is projected because of the increasing worldwide preference for vegetable oils, which have a lower saturated fat content. Land tenure is the dominant barrier to more productive management of the lands on which coconut is grown.

Landlords generally prohibit understory cropping to avoid future claims to permanent occupancy. However, numerous crop species thrive under coconuts Paner, Multistory cropping systems—with a two- or three-tiered canopy that may include fruits, vegetables, and food crops—improve farm income and are observed in some areas.

It is unclear whether the planned extension of agrarian reform to the areas planted in coconuts, which was indicated in the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program legislation, will have any effect in overcoming this land tenure barrier. The titling of lands on which coconut is grown to tenant farmers would result in a dramatic increase in land use intensity for coconut.

This would significantly alleviate the high degree of income uncertainty for tenant farmers who grow coconuts. The concept of farmers producing fast-growing trees as crops was popularized in the mids by the Paper Industries Corporation of. The practice has gained momentum in recent years, as the depletion of old-growth hardwood forests sent domestic timber prices steeply upward. Substantial numbers of small-scale farmers in northern Mindanao now plant in short rotations and then sell gmelina Gmelina arbored and falcata Albizia falcataria as timber.

Climate Change and Natural Resource Management. Agroecosystems being the sites of intense interaction between human beings and natural world, global climate Agroecosystems being the sites of intense interaction between human beings and natural world, global climate change is likely to affect the resource base, the crop productivity, input use efficiency and overall the profitability of agricultural production systems to a great Ecology and Natural Resource Development in the Western.

The densely populated Bamenda Highlands of Cameroon remains one of the regions with the greatest The densely populated Bamenda Highlands of Cameroon remains one of the regions with the greatest land degradation problems in the country. Factors responsible for this include climate change, the hilly nature or topographic layout of the land, and human interference Geospatial Technologies or Natural Resources Management.

The contents of the book are of a high quality and flow very smoothly from The modelling studies Ecologists and natural resource managers are charged with making complex management decisions in the face Ecologists and natural resource managers are charged with making complex management decisions in the face of a rapidly changing environment resulting from climate change, energy development, urban sprawl, invasive species and globalization. Natural Beauty Journal Springtime paperback contains alternating blank pages and lined pages. Express yourself with Express yourself with words or images.

Blank pages also provide the option to paste pictures or clippings like a scrapbook. You'll enjoy the beautiful and vibrant flower on the paperback Natural Resource Management and the Circular Economy. This book provides insight into how governments are using a variety of innovative fiscal and This book provides insight into how governments are using a variety of innovative fiscal and non-fiscal instruments to develop circular economies with significant economic and environmental benefits.

It emphasises the urgent need for these circular economies and to move away Go to Opinion Opinion References Opinion Conservation initiatives around the globe aim to improve livelihoods of the poor through sustainable conservation of natural resources [ 1 - 3 ]. But, these initiatives, in many instances, are guided by the theories and know-how of natural science with less attention to social issues without taking into account social science expertise and participatory processes for the conservation of natural resources [ 4 , 5 ]. Consequently, interdisciplinary research by mainstreaming social science is important for sustainable conservation of natural resources.

Mainstreaming social science strengthens conservation initiatives to ensure sustainable use of resources through peoples' participation. Because the skills, expertise and knowledge of social scientists [ 6 ] help improve public understanding of conservation policy and practice by pursuing the critical questions [ 4 ]. Besides, social science generates evidence for an appropriate governance of conservation that transforms conventional tenets of conservation [ 4 ].

Thus, social science mainstreaming socializes conservation to appropriately interpret community needs that prioritize to people-driven sustainable conservation. Notwithstanding, natural scientists may argue that social science mainstreaming may not bring a solution to all conservation issues. That is why social scientists and natural scientists should work closely in a trans-disciplinary team to jointly design conservation objectives to work together from the initial planning stages of the project cycle to its conclusion [ 4 ].