He is best known for his essays on Christianity and for the children's fantasy series The Chronicles of Narnia. Misattributed [ edit ] You are never too old to set another goal, or to dream a new dream. Unknown, but also attributed to Les Brown, a motivational speaker. Commonly attributed to C. Lewis, but never with a primary source listed. The best way to drive out the devil, if he will not yield to texts of Scripture, is to jeer and flout him, for he cannot bear scorn. You are a soul. You have a body. Commonly attributed to Mere Christianity , where it is not found.
Earliest reference seems to be an unsourced attribution to George MacDonald in an issue of the Quaker periodical The British Friend. Has been cited as being in Mere Christianity , but it is not to be found there. The homemaker has the ultimate career. All other careers exist for one purpose only—and that is to support the ultimate career. Paraphrased from a letter C. Lewis wrote to Mrs. A class of female demons of bad weather whose main occupation is leading hail-producing thunderclouds in the direction of fields, vineyards and orchards.
Extremely voracious, Ala particularly like to eat children, though their gluttony is not limited to Earth - they may sometimes try to devour the sun or the moon, causing eclipses. When people encounter an ala, their mental and physical health and life are in peril; however, favor can be gained by approaching the ala with respect and trust.
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Alas can make their favorites wealthy and even save their lives in times of trouble. One of the Great Dukes of Hell, commanding thirty-six legions of demons. Teaches astronomy and the liberal arts, provides good familiars, also induces people to immorality. He appears in the shape of a mounted knight with a leonine face, ruddy complexion and burning eyes. Allu - Mesopotamia. A destructive race of monstrous and faceless demons.
Born to Lilitu or one of her demon succubi, they surrounded the death beds of the men who father them waiting for the moment they can take their souls, thus turning them into homeless ghosts. A Prince of Hell with power over Asmodai, said to have deadly poisonous breath. Amdusias - Christian. Holds the rank of Great King and has forty legions of demons under his command. Associated with thunder and accompanied by the sound of trumpets, his voice may be heard during storms.
Commonly depicted as a human with claws instead of hands and feet, the head of a unicorn, and a trumpet to symbolize his powerful voice. In charge of the music played in Hell. He can make trees bend at will. Ammut - Egyptian. A female demon with the body part lion, hippopotamus and crocodile. Called Devourer of the Dead, Ammit lived near the scales of justice in Egyptian underworld and devoured the hearts of those judged to be not pure. Amy - Christian. A minor demon, the 58th spirit of the 72 spirits of Solomon, with the rank of President of Hell and the command of 36 legions.
He is depicted in a man's shape and teaches astrology and the liberal arts, procures familiars and finds lost treasure. He also, somewhaty bizrarely, hopes to return to heaven one day, which according to Johann Wier's Pseudomonarchia Daemonum is "not credible". Andras - Christian. Holds the rank of Great Marquis of Hell, is the 63rd of the 72 spirits of Solomon and commands thirty legions of demons. He teaches those whom he favors to kill their enemies, masters and servants and sows discord, trouble and dissension among people. He holds the shape of a winged angel with the head of an owl or raven, riding upon a strong black wolf and wielding a sharp bright sword.
Andras is considered to be highly dangerous and can kill a conjuring magician and his assistants if precautions are not taken. Andrealphus - Christian. A great Marquis ruling over thirty legions, with the appearance of a peacock who raises great noises and teaches astronomy and geometry. He is also described as having the ability to turn men into birds. Angul - A demon from the Philippines who kills people with an axe. Andromalius - Christian. A Great Earl of Hell with thirty-six legions of demons at his command. He can bring back thieves and stolen goods, punish thieves and other wicked people and discover hidden treasures, evilness and dishonest dealing.
Depicted as a man holding a serpent in his hand. In the Book of Enoch he is the 11th on a list of 20 leaders of a group of fallen angels called Grigori or "Watchers". The name means "accursed one". Asag - Sumerian. A monstrous demon whose name means "demon that causes sickness", described as being so hideous that his appearance makes fish boil alive in rivers. Often accompanied into battle by an army of rock demon offspring, born of his union with the mountains.
Associated with the serpent or dragon archetype by historians. Asakku - B abylonian. They were associated with Asag, the demon of sickness. A demon mover and shaker, referenced in many Judaic and Christian texts as a king of demons, the King of the Nine Hells and as one of the seven princes of Hell, representing one of the seven deadly sins - in this case lust. He is responsible for twisting people's sexual desires and those that fall prey to his evil ways will be sentenced to an eternity in the second level of hell.
Astaroth - Christian. A very powerful demon, depicted as a nude man with feathered wings, wearing a crown, holding a serpent in one hand, and riding a beast with dragon-like wings and a serpent-like tail.
He is a demon of the First Hierarchy who seduces by means of laziness, vanity and rationalized philosophies. He also teaches mathematical sciences and handicrafts, can make men invisible and lead them to hidden treasures, and answers every question formulated to him. He is said to give to humans the power over serpents.
A supernatural being mentioned by Leviticus in connection with the ritual of the Day of Atonement Yom Kippur. A demon monster with three mouths, six eyes, and three heads , cunning and strong, possessed of all possible sins and evil counsels This detail scene is from the Papyrus of Hunefer ca.
One of the seven princes of Hell. Ranked as the first and principal king in Hell by the Christians, he rules over the East with sixty-six legions of demons under his command.
He has the power to make those who invoke him invisible and can make people wise. His power is strongest in October. Originally depicted as a man or a bull, in latter times he is said to appear in the forms of a man, cat, toad, or combinations thereof. Balam — Christian. A king of Hell who commands over forty legions of demons. He gives perfect answers on things past, present and to come, and can make men invisible and witty.
He is depicted as three-headed, with the head of a bull, a man and a ram. He has flaming eyes and the tail of a serpent.
He carries a hawk on his fist and rides a bear. Once a perfectly respectable god of the Canaanites and the patron of their city, he came to be viewed as a demon by the Jews and Christians via worship of the pagan god Ba'al by the tribal Israelites who refused to give up their idolatrous ways. He holds the rank of chief secretary of Hell and the head of its public archives, and he tempts men to blasphemy and murder. He tells things of the past, present and future with true answers; he can also turn all metals into gold.
He is depicted as a soldier wearing red clothes, a golden crown and riding a red horse; his skin may also be red. His power is strongest in June. Banshee — Christian. Depicted most often as an ugly, frightening hag, she may appear at will as a beautiful woman of any age. Baphomet — Christian. Originally believed to be a corruption of the name "Mahomet" referring to the Prophet Muhammad , the term was a general one referring to a pagan deity but became associated with the perceived devil worship of the Knights Templar in the 14 th century and with occultism and Satanism in the 19th century, after which time he has been depicted as the ultimate Sabbatic Goat, the figure that appears as the devil in the Tarot pack.
Barbas — Christian. A straightforward demon described as the Great President of Hell and governing thirty-six legions of demons. He answers truly on hidden or secret things, causes and heals diseases, teaches mechanical arts, and changes men into other shapes. He is depicted as a great lion that, under the conjurer's request, changes shape into a man. Barbatos - Christian. An Earl and Duke of Hell, ruling eighty legions of demons with four kings as his companions to command his legions.
He gives understanding of the voices of animals, reveals the past and future, conciliates friends and rulers and leads men to hidden treasures hidden by the enchantment of magicians. A Duke or Great Duke of Hell who commands thirty legions of demons. He knows the virtues of precious stones and herbs, and can bring men suddenly from one country to another.
He helps one project astrally and transports the conjuror to desired places. Depicted as a strong man with the tail of a serpent, riding a pale horse. Beelzebub - Judaic, Christian. Possessing a very complex etymology, he is described as being placed high in Hell's hierarchy, of the order of cherubim and among the three most prominent fallen angels the others being Lucifer and Leviathan or sometimes Azaroth , the chief lieutenant of Lucifer and presiding over the Order of the Fly.
Religious images in Christian theology
Beelzebub is associated with the deadly sin of pride or sometimes gluttony, and is also called the prince of false gods. He is frequently named as an object of desire by confessed witches. The Pharisees accused Jesus of using Beelzebub's demonic powers to heal people Luke 11v and throughout history Beelzebub has been held responsible for many cases of demon possession, including the famous case of Sister Madeleine de Demandolx de la Palud in Aix-en-Provence in His name also came up repeatedly during the Salem witch trials.
One of the four crown princes of Hell with command over fifty legions. He appears as two beautiful angels sitting in a chariot of fire. He provides fame to the conjuring mage but sacrifice must be given him or he will lie. Sometimes used as a substitute for Satan himself. Beleth - Christian. A king of Hell with eighty-five legions of demons under his command. He rides a pale horse, and all kind of music is heard before him. When appearing he looks very fierce to frighten the conjurer or to see if he is courageous. Belphegor - Christian. Originally worshiped as Baal-Peor , the Assyrian god to whom some Israelites became attached, he was associated with licentiousness and orgies and worshipped in the form of a phallus.
Again reviled by early Hebrews as a means of discrediting idolatrous Semitics, he evolved into one of the Christian seven princes of Hell, in which form he helps people make discoveries and suggests to them ingenious inventions that will make them rich. He is the chief demon of the deadly sin Sloth and his power is strongest in April. He may appear as a beautiful young woman or as a monstrous, bearded demon with horns and sharply pointed nails; the former form, according to most sources, is his earthly disguise when invoked by mortals.
Bifrons - Christian. An Earl of Hell, with either six or twenty-six legions of demons under his command. He teaches sciences and arts, the virtues of the gems, herbs and woods, and changes corpses from their original grave into other places. He appears first as a monster, then changes his shape into that of a man. Botis - Christian. A Great President and Earl of Hell, commanding sixty legions of demons.
He tells of all things past and future, and reconciles friends and foes. He is depicted as a viper, then changes into human form with big teeth and two horns, carrying a sharp sword in his hand. A Great President of Hell with fifty demons legions under his command.
He appears when the Sun is in Sagittarius. Buer teaches Natural and Moral Philosophy, Logic and the virtues of herbs and plants. He also heals infirmities, especially of men, and provides good familiars. He usually takes the form of a centaur with a bow and arrows, although he was once famously depicted as having the head of a lion and five symmetrical goat legs allowing him to walk in every direction, an image popular with several modern heavy metal bands.
Bune - Christian. A Great Duke of Hell with thirty legions of demons under his command. Bune makes men eloquent, wise and rich. He speaks with a comely high voice and is depicted as a three-headed dragon, with the heads a dog, a griffin and a man. A Great President or Prince of Hell, ruling over thirty legions of demons. He is a good disputer, provides true answers concerning the future and gives men the understanding of the voices of various creatures such as birds and dogs as well as of the noise of water. He is depicted in the form of a blackbird, but changes into a man bearing a sword.
Sometimes he appears as a man wearing rich and elegant clothes with the head and wings of a blackbird. When answering questions he seems to stand on burning coals. Charun - Etruscan. A pre-Christian demon whose job it was to guard the entrance to the underworld. He is depicted with a hammer and pointed ears, tusks, snakes around his arms, enormous wings and a bluish coloration symbolizing the decay of death. Holding the rank of Marquis, he is served by 20 legions and also rules over all the spirits of Africa.
He appears as a warrior riding a black horse and possesses the abilities of locating lost or hidden treasures, teaching Grammar, Logic and Rhetoric and making a man into a warrior of his own likeness. Corson - Christian.
One of the four principal kings that have power over the seventy-two demons supposedly constrained by King Solomon. Not to be conjured except on great occasions. Once a member of the Powers, he is now a Duke of Hell who rules over 48 legions of demons. He appears as an angel with a tendency to speak in dark and mysterious ways. When summoned he teaches Geometry and other Liberal Sciences and can warm bodies of water, create the illusion of the sound of rushing waters, and reveal the location of natural baths. He is associated with water. D Daeva - Zoroastrian. A class of demons with disagreeable characteristics, described as noxious creatures that promote chaos and disorder.
Dantalion — Christian. A Great Duke of Hell with thirty-six legions of demons under his command; as a Jinn, he is the 71st of 72 spirits of Solomon. He teaches the arts and sciences, and given that he knows the thoughts of all people he can declare their secret thoughts and change them at will. He can also cause a person to love another, and move people from one place to another anywhere in the world.
He is depicted as a man with many appearances, ie the face of any man or woman he chooses and often appears with a book in one of his hands. Danjal — Judaic. A fallen angel, the seventh mentioned of the 20 Watcher leaders of the fallen angels described in the Book of Enoch. He is said to have taught the "signs of the sun" to humans. Nineteenth century personification of the devil, saint, or god of the seas.
May simply be another name for the devil, as in "Devil Jonah. A Great Marquis of Hell with thirty legions of demons under his command. He knows the virtues of all herbs and precious stones. He appears in the form of a pentagram star, changing into a man at the conjurer's request and can take the form of any bird as required. Demiurge — Gnostic.
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Considered to be the creator of the universe the real, perceptible world , the Gnostics considered the material universe to be evil and the non-material world to be good. Accordingly, the demiurge is malevolent. Demogorgon — Christian. A mysterious pagan god or demon associated with the ancient Greek underworld and seen as a powerful primordial being, whose very name was taboo. Christian writers naturally assigned him a place as a demon of Hell and he has been described as the Master of Fate or Master of Ceremonies in hell's hierarchy as well as the lord of fairies and genii.
Devil Believed by many cultures and religions to be a powerful and supreme entity, a trickster or tempter figure that is the enemy of God and humankind. Sometimes regarded as a fallen angel, sometimes merely as a demon or personification of evil will, he tempts humans to sin or commit evil deeds and can command a huge force of lesser demons. Judaism sees the role of the devil as assigned rather than assumed. Today many regard the Devil as an allegory that represents a crisis of faith, individualism, free will and strength of character.
Div-e Sepid - Persia. Skilled in sorcery and necromancy, he appears as a huge being with great physical strength. Drekavac - Slavic Christian Folklore. A class of demons created from the souls of children who have died unbaptised. They may appear in many forms including elongated with a disproportionately large head, as a bird, a dog or a fox with hind legs similar to those of kangaroo or in the form of a child calling for people passing near the cemetery to baptise it. Universally described as having a horrific yell. Dzoavits — Native American.
A demon or ogre from Shoshonean mythology who stole the sun and kidnaps children.
Associated with volcanism and cannibalism. E Empusa — ancient Greek. Originally a demigoddess in her own right, she seduced young men as they slept, drinking their blood and eating their flesh. In later versions she became an entire species of demon known in English as empuse, commanded by the goddess Hecate to guard roads and devour travelers. F Familiars — Christian. Supernatural entities, who when serving witches, were thought to be malevolent and were classified as demons. They may appear in numerous guises, often animal, but also in human form.
A President of Hell with the command of twenty-nine legions of demons. He teaches Logic and Ethics, the virtues of herbs and precious stones, can make a man witty, eloquent, invisible invincible according to some authors , bestow long life, and can discover treasures and recover lost things. He is depicted as a strong man. Forneus — Christian. A Great Marquis of Hell with twenty-nine legions of demons under his rule.
He teaches Rhetoric and languages, and make men loved by friends and foes alike. Commonly depicted as a sea monster. A Knight of Hell the rank of Knight is unique to him , comanding 20 legions of demons. Depicted as a strong old man with white hair and long white beard, he rides a horse while holding a pitch fork. Furfur - Christian. A Great Earl of Hell, commanding twenty-nine legions of demons. Lies compulsively unless compelled to enter a magic triangle after which he gives true answers to every question, speaking with a rough voice.
He can create love between a man and a woman, create storms, tempests, thunder, lightning, and blasts, and teaches secret and divine things.
He is depicted as a hart or winged hart, sometimes as an angel, changing from the former to the later when compelled to enter the magic triangle. G Gaap - Christian. A Prince and Great President of Hell, commanding sixty-six legions of demons. According to some he is the king of the southern region of Hell and Earth, to others the king of the western region and as mighty as Beleth, but for both he is considered to be the guide of the Four Kings. Best conjured to appear when the Sun is in a southern zodiacal sign.
He specifically controls the element of water and reigns over the Water Elementals or 'water demons'. He teaches Philosophy and all liberal sciences, can cause love or hate and make men insensible and invisible, release familiars from the custody of other magicians, give true answers concerning past, present and future, and can carry and re-carry men and things speedily from one place to another.
He is sometimes honoured with sacrifices and burning offerings. Depicted in human form. A type of supernatural being, rather than a demon, described in Buddhist, Hindu, Sikh, and Jain texts as the spirit of a dead person with evil intent, specifically afflicted with insatiable hunger or thirst for a particular substance or object as a result of bad deeds or intent in their life time. Gamigin - Christian. A Great Marquis of Hell who commands thirty legions of demons. He teaches the Liberal Sciences and gives an account of the souls of those who died in sin and who drowned in the sea, speaking with a rough voice.
He is depicted as a small horse or donkey which changes into the form a man at the conjurer's request. Gello — Aramaic and early Christian. A class of female child-snatching demons who threaten the reproductive cycle by causing infertility, spontaneous abortion and infant mortality. Glasya-Labolas — Christian. A President or Earl of Hell who commands thirty-six legions of demons. He is associated with manslaughter and bloodshed, speaks of the past and the future, knows all sciences, gains the minds and love of friends and foes causing love among them if desired, incites homicides and can make a man invisible.
He is depicted as a dog with the wings of a griffin. A Duke of Hell commanding twenty-six legions of demons. He tells all things past, present and future, about hidden treasures, and procures the love of women, young and old, but especially maidens. He is depicted as appearing in the form of a beautiful woman with the crown of a duchess tied around his waist, and riding a camel.
A Great Duke of Hell commanding over forty legions of demons. He tells all past, present and future things, shows the meaning of all questions that are asked to him, reconciles friends, and gives honour and dignity. He is depicted as a baboon or according to some, as the reincarnation of the Greek philosopher Xenophilus. H Haagenti a Great President of Hell, ruling thirty-three legions of demons. He makes men wise by instructing them in every subject, transmutes all metals into gold, and changes wine into water and water into wine.
He is depicted as a big bull with the wings of a griffin, changing into a man under request of the conjurer. His specialty is building towers and filling them with ammunition and weapons. He is often depicted in the form of a stork. He gives the usual true answers of all things past, present and future, but must first be commanded to enter a magic triangle - if not he will lie, deceive and beguile the conjurer. His specialties are divinity, the creation of the world, himself, and other fallen angels. He can also destroy all the conjurer's enemies, including other demons, by burning them up.
Depicted as a humanoid leopard with big claws, he changes into a man with fiery eyes and an awful expression. I Ifrit - Islam. A class of supernatural being within the Jinn, spirits below the level of angels noted for their strength and cunning. Imp - Christian. Originating from Germanic folklore, an imp is a lesser demon and often considered more mischievous than evil or harmful. Often shown as small and not very attractive creatures. Incubus - Judaic and Christian. A demon in male form who lies upon sleepers, especially women, in order to have intercourse with them, sometimes with the intent of fathering a child.
Its female counterpart is the succubus. Repeated intercourse with an incubus or succubus may result in the deterioration of health or death. An Earl and Prince of Hell with thirty-six legions of demons under his command. He knows and can reveal all things, past, present and future, and make men witty and valiant. Commonly depicted with the body of an angel, the head of a lion, the tail of a hare, and the feet of a goose, but sometimes as a vulture. J Jinn - Islam. Important supernatural creatures in Arab folklore and Islamic teachings, which together with humans and angels make up the three sentient creations of Allah.
They occupy a parallel world to that of mankind and are made of smokeless flame or scorching fire. Like human beings, the Jinn can be good, evil, or neutrally benevolent, so not strictly demons, but still classifiable as such. A type of vampire similar to the Langsuir, and formed from women who have died during childbirth and become undead, seeking revenge on entire villages.
It disguises itself as a beautiful young woman mainly to attract its victim, usually male, although they will sometimes target particular female victims, ie those who are pregnant or in the childbirth process, and attempt to cause miscarriage. Kokb'ael — Judaic. He teaches astrology to his associates and commands an army of , spirits. A female demon who assails folk working at noon causing heatstroke, aches in the neck and sometimes madness. She takes the form of a whirling dust cloud and carries a scythe.
She will stop people in the field to ask them difficult questions or engage them in conversation. If anyone fails to answer a question or tries to change the subject, she will cut off their head or strike them with illness. She may appear as an old hag, a beautiful woman, or a year-old girl. She is only seen on the hottest part of the day and is a personification of sun-stroke. Lamashtu - Sumerian. A female demon and daughter of the Sky God Anu , she menaces women during childbirth and kidnaps children while they are breastfeeding, gnawing on their bones and sucking their blood.
She is depicted with a hairy body, lioness' head with donkey's teeth and ears, long fingers and fingernails and the feet of a bird with sharp talons. She is often shown standing or kneeling on a donkey, nursing a pig and a dog and holding snakes. She bears some resemblance to the Mesopotamian demon Lilith. Lamia - ancient Greek and early Christian. Supposedly a beautiful queen of Libya who became a child-eating daemon.
Later Christian traditions created an entire class of demons from her called lamiae; who seduce young men and feed on their blood. Legion - Christian. Jesus casts the demons out, granting their request to dwell in a herd of pigs which then drown themselves in the Sea of Galilee. Leyak - Indonesian. When human they practice black magic and have cannibalistic behavior.
Their queen is a widow-witch named Rangda , who plays a prominent role in public Indonesian rituals. They command demons. A Great Marquis of Hell who has thirty legions of demons under his power. He causes battles and disputes, and makes wounds caused by arrows gangrenous. Associated with the zodiacal sign of Sagittarius. He is depicted as a gallant and handsome archer clad in green, carrying a bow and quiver. Leviathan — Judaic and Christian.
One of the seven princes of Hell and its gatekeeper see Hellmouth. The word has become synonymous with any large sea monster or and is referred to often as such in the Bible. Described extensively in Job The demonic children of Lilith and Samael who prey on newborn children, up to eight days after birth for boys and twenty days for girls.
An amulet inscribed with the names of three angels Senoy , Sansenoy , and Semangelof is placed around the neck of newborn boys in order to protect them from the lilin until their circumcision. Pregnant women also fall under the domain of the lilin, and need to be protected. They can cause barrenness, miscarriages, and complications during childbirth.
Lilith - Sumerian, Akkadian, Judaic. Although well-known, Lilith is a shadowy character whose origins are poorly understood. According to Jewish tradition, Lilith was Adam's first wife, created at the same time and from the same earth as him. Regarded by many as the first feminist, she was said to have refused to become subservient to Adam who complained to god about her behaviour, then ditched her for Eve , then mated with the archangel Samael.
The resulting Lilith legend is a very malleable one and has become the source of many modern tales of occultism, fantasy and horror. Lucifer - Christian. Originally meaning nothing more than "light-bearer" from the words lucem ferre , the interchangeability of the word with Satan stems from a particular interpretation of Isaiah —20 , a passage that does not speak of fallen angels but of the defeat of a Babylonian King.
Lucifuge Rofocale - Christian. The demon in charge of Hell's government by order of Lucifer. The name Lucifuge is pronounced with a silent 'e' and comes from two Latin words; lux light; genitive lucis , and fugio to flee , meaning "he who flees the light".
The proper pronunciation of Rofocal is an anagram for Focalor , which is the name of another important demon who is possibly in his servitude. Said to be the ruler of the qliphoth Satariel. A Great President or Prince of Hell, having forty legions of demons under his command. He accepts any sacrifice offered to him, but will deceive the conjurer if he can.
He is depicted as a crow that changes by request into the shape into a man, and he speaks with a hoarse voice. Mammon - Christian.